**by Subramanian Narayanan****
**published June 2007 • ISBN 0 906522 420 • 862pp • £67.50
(in two volumes)

Space Structures are economical and aesthically pleasing in appearance. They provide a unique solution for covering large column free areas. This book gives a state of the art presentation of the analysis, design and construction of space structures. The author synthesizes data currently available with his original and exhaustive research to produce the definitive book on space structures.

Principal features and topics of the book include:

• Analysis, design and construction of various types of
space structures

• Nodes and jointing systems

• Approximate methods of analysis

• Concepts are explained through over 400 figures, 90 photographs and
35 tables

• An extensive bibliography, over 1000 references in total

This book is appropriate for university level architecture / building science / civil engineering departmental libraries. Post graduate students and academics, as well as practising architects and engineers will find much of value in this comprehensive work.

**Contents 1 **

Foreword Preface Acknowledgement

1. Introduction

General, Definition of Space Structures, Historical Developments, Types of
Space Structures, Materials Used in Space Frames, Advantages and Disadvantages,
Practical Difficulties, References

2. Single and multi-layer grids

Introduction, Single Layer Grid Systems, Double Layer Grids, Two-Way Space
Grids, Three-Way Space Grids, Double Layer Grids for Multistorey Buildings,
Advantages of Double Layer Grids, Cladding, Water Drainage in Double Layer
Grids, Triple Layer Grids, Double Layer Grids for Walls, Multi-Layer Grids,
Progressive Collapse and Composite Space Trusses, References

3. Braced domes

Introduction, Materials for Braced Domes, Functional Applications of Domes,
Basic Geometries of Domes, Types of Braced Domes, Ribbed Domes, Schwedler
Domes, Stiff-Jointed Framed Domes, Plate Type Domes, Network Domes, Zimmermann
Domes, Lamella Domes, Geodesic Domes, Grid Domes, Improving the Buckling Behaviour
of Single Layer Domes, Double Layer Domes, Search for the Optimum Type of
Braced Dome, Timber Domes, Stressed Skin Domes, Some Outstanding Domes, Ice
Domes, Freedome® Structures, Wind Loading on Domes, Low Cost Housing,
Cladding, Erection, References

4. Braced folded structures

Introduction, Steel Frame Folded Plate Roofs, Baer's Approximate Method, Behaviour
of Steel Frame Folded Plate Roofs, Braced Barrel Vaults, Behaviour of Braced
Barrel Vaults, Practical Considerations, Practical Examples, References

5. Connectors

Introduction, Classification of Connectors, Ball Joint Systems, Socket Joint
Systems, Plate Joint Systems, Slot Joint Systems, Shell Joint Systems, Modular
Systems, Compositive Systems, Comparison of Prefabricated systems, Design
of Spherical Joints, Other Patented Systems, Newly Developed MERO Joints,
Some Simple Connectors, References

6. Stressed skin systems

Introduction, Stressed Skin Steel Buildings, Stressed Skin Grids, Stressed
Skin Domes and Folded Plate Structures, References

7. Cable suspended roof structures

Introduction, Components of Suspended Roofs, Types of Cable Network Systems,
Shapes of Cable Suspended Systems, Examples of Cable Suspended Roofs, Analysis
of Suspension Structures, Construction Aspects of Cable Roofs, Design of Cable
Roofs, Ancillary Problems, Erection of Cable Roofs, Economy, New Trends, References

8. Tensile membrane structures

General, Part I Pneumatic Structures, Introduction, Characteristics of Pneumatic
Structures, Types of Pneumatic Structures, Structural Materials and Coatings,
Fans and Pressure Control, Doors, Lighting, Other Aspects, Erection , Anchorage
Design, Maintenance, Temperature and Sound Control, Analysis of Pneumatic
Structures, Trends in Pneumatic Constructions, Failures of Air-Supported Structures,
Part II Membrane Structures, Introduction, Analysis of Net and Tent Structures,
Factors to be considered in the design, Examples of Membrane Structures, Examples
of Large Scale membrane Structures, Membrane Materials, Typical Joints and
Edge Details, Design Standards for Membrane Structures, Other Practical Considerations,
References

**Contents 2 **

9. Tensegritic structures

Introduction, Tensegritic Nets, Tensegritic Structures, Tensegritic Structures
and Maxwell's Rules, Morphological Studies, Characteristics of Tensegritic
Structures, Stability of Tensegritic Structures, Application of Tensegritic
Nets, Analysis and Design of Tensegritic Structures, Other Aspects, Cable
(Tenstar) Dome, Tension Strut Dome, Other types of Tensegrity Domes, Truss
Structures stabilized by Cable Tension (TSC), Suspen - Dome Structure, Flying
Mast Fabric Roof System, References

10. Analysis of skeletal space frames

Introduction, Available Analytical Methods, Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis,
Basic Principles of the Stiffness Method, Development of Stiffness Matrix
for Plane Frame Members, Assembly of the Stiffness Matrix for a Structure,
Banding of the K-Matrix, Solution to the Stiffness Equations, Stiffness Matrices
for a Straight Uniform Member in a Space Structure, Stiffness Matrices which
include Secondary Effects, Stiffness Matrices which Take into Account the
Offset Members, Determination of the Elastic Critical Loads of Space Structures,
Software Packages, References

11. Formex data generation

Introduction, Formex Algebra, Formex Approach to Data Generation, Formian,
Concluding Remarks, References

12. Approximate methods of analysis

General, Double Layer Grids, Curved Space Frames, Steel Frame Folded Plate
Roofs, Stressed Skin Folded Plate Roof, Design of Suspended Roof Structures,
Pneumatic Structures, References

13. Some important aspects of space structures

Introduction, Design of Skeletal Space Structures, Construction, Supports
and Support Conditions, Cladding of Space Frames, Aesthetics, Failures of
Skeletal Space Frames, Other Types of Skeletal Space Frames, Some Outstanding
Space Structures, Current and Future Trends in Space Structures, References

14. Space structures with changing geometries

Introduction, Deployable Structures, Adaptive Trusses, Pantadome System -
A Deployable System for the Erection of domes, Retractable Roofs, References

Appendix I Polyhedra and Polygon Patterns

General, Definition of Polyhedra, Types of Polyhedra, Properties of Regular
Polyhedra, Polygon Patterns, References

Appendix II Computer Program for the Buckling Analysis of Skeletal
Space Frames

General, Description of the Program, Input/Output Data, Dimensions, Examples,
Listing of the Computer Program, Sample Input of the Program, Output of the
Program

Appendix III Bending of an Axially Loaded Member

Index

Dr Narayanan obtained his doctorate from I.I.T Chennai in 1978, and is currently Chief Executive of Computer Design Consultants. For this book, he draws on more than 30 years experience in computer aided design, consultancy, research and teaching. He is the author of 20 books on structural engineering and computers and has contributed over 150 papers to national and international journals. He is an editorial board member of several journals, including the International Journal of Space Structures.